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XRAY-193805 - H2 console JNDI RCE

CVE-2021-42392 | CVSS 9.8

JFrog Severity:critical

Discovered ByAndrey Polkovnychenkoof the JFrog Security Research Team

Published 6 Jan, 2022 | Last updated 7 Jan, 2022

Unsafe JNDI loading in H2 database console leads to remote code execution

H2 Database

H2 Database (, 2.0.204], fixed in 2.0.206

Several code paths in the H2 database framework pass unfiltered attacker-controlled URLs to the javax.naming.Context.lookup function, which allows for remote codebase loading.

The most severe attack vector of this issue is through the H2 console.

The H2 database contains an embedded web-based console, which allows easy management of the database. It’s available by default on http://localhost:8082 when running the H2 package JAR.

Access to the console is protected by a login form, which allows passing the driver and url fields to the corresponding fields of JdbcUtils.getConnection. This leads to unauthenticated RCE, since the username and password are not validated before performing the lookup with the potentially malicious URL.

Although the issue is critical, it does have some mitigating factors - 1. On vanilla distributions of the H2 database, by default the H2 console only listens to localhost connections – making the default setting safe. 2. Many vendors may be running the H2 database, but not running the H2 console. Although there are other vectors to exploit this issue other than the console, these other vectors are context-dependent and less likely to be exposed to remote attackers.

No PoC is supplied for this issue

Vendors may wish to upgrade their Java (JRE/JDK) version to enable the trustURLCodebase mitigation. This mitigation is enabled by default on the following versions of Java (or any later version) –

  • 6u211
  • 7u201
  • 8u191
  • 11.0.1

The mitigation will deny loading of remote classes via JNDI, but can be bypassed by sending a serialized "gadget" Java object through LDAP, as long as the respective "gadget" class is included in the classpath (depends on the server that runs the H2 database).

(JFrog) JNDI-Related Vulnerability Discovered in H2 Database Console


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